China's lighting appliances amalgam and green lighting Zhu Shenghe often find the same material (glass, phosphor, argon, mercury, etc.) and the same lamp production process of the lamp, in the photoelectric parameter test, less than 13W The power lamps are normal, and the high-power lighting parameters above 26W are not ideal. The main performance is that the light efficiency is reduced, the color temperature is increased, the color coordinates are drifted, and the color rendering index is decreased. The optical parameters are formed. We have made a lot of efforts in the process and have not achieved results. The phosphor factory has done a lot of work for this purpose, and it can't do anything about the "deterioration" of the light parameters.
The 7 nm ultraviolet radiation also produces "deterioration" of the optical parameters caused by visible light such as 4358 nm (blue light) and 5461 nm (green light). And this "deterioration" phenomenon is exacerbated by the increase in mercury pressure. This paper focuses on the mechanism of using amalgam to eliminate the "deterioration" of optical parameters, ensuring that CFL always achieves the highest luminous efficiency, while obtaining stable color temperature, color coordinates and high color rendering index, becoming a true green light source.
The outer line is the strongest, while other visible light such as ultraviolet light and blue light and green light are small. At this time, the corresponding cold end temperature of the pipe wall (also known as the mercury control point temperature) is about 40*Q, which is the best work of ordinary fluorescent lamps. status.
Ordinary fluorescent lamps are designed according to the wall temperature equal to 40*C (at room temperature) and Hg=0.8Pa. However, in most of the CFL, the mercury control point temperature of the lamp is higher than 40CPH> 253.7nm, and the 185.0nm accelerated phosphor aging is strengthened. At the same time, the blue-white visible light is also added with Ph. And, this leads to the "inferior change" of the optical parameters such as the color temperature of the CFL, the coordinate drift, and the decrease of the color rendering index.
After 8Pa, it will bring three adverse effects to CFL: reduce luminous efficiency, inferior light parameters, and accelerate phosphor aging, and these effects will not occur in ordinary fluorescent lamps. Therefore, how to ensure that the mercury pressure in the lamp is always stable at 0.8Pa is a key issue in CFL design.
The wall load of the 1CFL and the load of the CFL of the cold end are about 150mW/om2, which is five times that of the ordinary fluorescent lamp, so the wall temperature is much higher than the latter. The primary task of the CFL in design is to set the cold end: the bridge (H head), the cold corner (head), the convex ball (M head) and the lower end of the spiral lamp to blow the convex ball. These cold ends are effective for low power or specific placement (eg, H lamps must be used in parallel), but are very inefficient for high power or for closed and semi-closed luminaires. In the test, we often find that the H lighting parameters below 11W are basically normal, and the photoelectric parameters such as the spiral lamp below 13W are basically normal, but the 26W double H and spiral lamps vary with the temperature of the measuring ball. Even in the ball temperature test of 25C, it is often found that the luminous efficiency decreases, the color temperature rises, the color rendering index decreases, the color coordinate drifts, etc., causing the light parameters to "deteriorate". Although we have accumulated a large amount of data, but limited to the test conditions and the accuracy of the test instrument, this article also quotes foreign 111: shows the luminous flux, cold junction temperature, color temperature and color rendering index curve of 26W double H lamp at different ambient temperatures.
2 Amalgam can ensure that the mercury pressure of CFL is stable at 0.8Pa amalgam. Different ratios of amalgam can provide stable mercury pressure in different temperature ranges. Ph=0.8Pa. Domestic amalgam has evolved from two types in 1990 to more than 15 types. It can be roughly divided into three types (by temperature). Divided), see shown.
21 low temperature amalgam S, P, 0 and other models, can directly replace liquid mercury, applied to a variety of bare lamps. Such as: 8, D 9, 9, 14 spiral, ", ring and other lamps. Because the amalgam pressure at room temperature is very close to liquid mercury, about 80% to 90% of liquid mercury at the same temperature, it can be made into Y05~1.0 fine particles, directly into the tube, the process is simple, and the central value of the temperature region is about In 40 22 high temperature amalgam M, G, J, L, K and other models, the central value of the working temperature is generally between 75 ~ 95 * C. Such amalgams are generally applied to ball lamps and the like having a sealed lampshade. High-temperature amalgam because the mercury pressure at room temperature is very low, about 10~1-8 of liquid mercury, it is difficult to start, and must be equipped with auxiliary amalgam to help start.
2.3 medium temperature amalgam B, A, E, N and other models, the central value of their working temperature is generally between 5575 * C. This type of amalgam is generally applicable to open 3U, 4U and low power ball lamps. At room temperature, the mercury pressure is about 50% 70% of liquid mercury. It can also be used without auxiliary amalgam. However, customers are required to â€œfasten upâ€ or use amalgam in low temperature areas. Auxiliary amalgam is also known as amalgam absorption. Its mechanism of action is to absorb Hg atoms when the lamp is turned off. When the lamp starts to jump, Hg atoms are quickly released to help the lamp start and accelerate the establishment of the light. It is a necessary component for high-temperature amalgam. The requirements for medium-temperature amalgam lamps can also be used. The chemical equations are as follows: Design and process of high-temperature 3 amalgam lamps. The mercury control point of amalgam lamps is not the cold end, but the main amalgam. Position temperature. Therefore, in the design of the lamp, first set the position of the amalgam, then put the lamp in the actual use of the lamp to determine the temperature of the amalgam position, and finally select the model of the amalgam. Generally, the lamp spiral lamp has two points, which are the inside of the exhaust pipe and the convex ball of the lamp.
If you choose the inside of the exhaust pipe, you can support it with a solid glass rod and adjust the position temperature of the amalgam by the length of the glass rod for best results.
If the power of the lamp is too large, the temperature inside the exhaust pipe is too high, and the amalgam must be kept away from the seal line (such as 16mm) to achieve the best. An electronic ballast plate may be required to reserve an aperture to facilitate passage of the exhaust pipe.
The amalgam is placed in the convex ball at the lower end of the spiral lamp, where the temperature is relatively low, and the medium-low temperature fine amalgam can be directly placed in the tube, and the stable luminous flux can be optimally matched, and if the auxiliary amalgam is used together The initial luminous flux is established very well. However, the disadvantage is that the lamp can not be used for turning around. If the U-turn is turned, the position of the amalgam is changed, the temperature is also changed, and the photoelectric parameters are very poor.
3U or 4U lamps, in addition to the above two types of options, can also be placed in the exhaust pipe of the "fake core column" of the middle pipe. The temperature here is 20*q lower than the inside of the filament exhaust pipe. If you choose here, you can use the medium temperature amalgam instead of the high temperature type, which is very beneficial to the initial luminous flux establishment. There are M positions in the bright pass. :ilElectronicPublish is fast, but its shortcoming is that after using the fake core column, the process is difficult to control and the bursting increases. After the position is selected, the position temperature is determined (the type of amalgam must be used.
The lamp manufacturing process for amalgam lamps can be selected based on the characteristic curve. It has been discussed many times. The characteristic curve of liquid mercury and various types of amalgams S amalgam contains Hg40% alternative liquid. Mercury, no pollution in the solid state, no mercury spots in the lamp.
P amalgam contains Hg30%, Tm0.8Pa=45*C, suitable for bare lamps such as T4, T5 and spiral lamps.
8Pa=50*C(å£«20*C) O-type melting point 145C low temperature characteristics close to liquid mercury, suitable for all kinds of bare lamps.
L amalgam contains Hg4 auxiliary amalgam, low temperature mercury absorption (lighting off mercury) high temperature mercury release (starting mercury release) helps the lamp to start, accelerate the establishment of luminous flux.
Dosage: 2~3 pieces per piece of 27mg per lamp.
Note: The auxiliary amalgam is as far as possible from the filament (must be greater than 3mm) as long as it does not touch the glass.
The following are only a few of the problems that are often encountered: (1) Why do the individual lamps illuminate very slowly, because there are many residual gases in the lamp (not the difference in vacuum of the system) And caused.
Practice shows that the cathode of the lamp with slow lighting is incompletely decomposed, the residual gas in the lamp tube is more, and the cathode activity is poor. When the same ballast has a small pipe flow, the mercury atom diffuses slowly and brightly. Such lamps are not suitable for delivery. After the lamp is turned off for 8 hours, the lamp will start to jump again. After 3060s, observe whether there is mercury spot near the filament. If it indicates that the auxiliary amalgam is abnormal, there is too much residual gas.
If there is no mercury spot, there is very little problem with the auxiliary amalgam. How to solve the problem of individual brightening, first of all to improve the consistency of the amount of electronic powder, followed by strengthening the cathode decomposition specification, eliminating the cold end effect of the filament.
(2) European and American customers require that the lamp be illuminated as fast as possible, requiring a peak of 60% or 80% in 1 minute. This requires that when designing the lamp, first try to find the main amalgam at the lowest temperature. In the case of satisfying the slowness of the light, is there a problem with the auxiliary amalgam? It is easy to judge that, under the premise of stabilizing the luminous flux (at high temperature), the main amalgam with a lower characteristic temperature curve is selected as much as possible, which can provide a higher P*. This is the main factor for accelerating the establishment of the initial luminous flux. It is also beneficial to properly add the amount of auxiliary amalgam. If the electronic ballast is preheated, it is also beneficial to accelerate the luminous flux.
As mentioned above, the amalgam can ensure that the mercury pressure of the CFL is stable at 0.8 Pa. No matter what kind of lamp is made, as long as the lamp and its whole lamp are properly matched, an amalgam can be selected to ensure the lamp. The mercury gas pressure is always stable at around 0.8 Pa, so that stable electrical parameters, optimum luminous efficiency, and ideal color temperature, color coordinates, and color rendering index can be obtained. Through years of production practice and experience, a large number of test data have been obtained for various CFL lamps to prove the above conclusions, but considering our test conditions and instrument accuracy, or refer to foreign authoritative data to illustrate, see Table 1. Table 126WA Comparison of photoelectric parameters of mercury and amalgam in double U lamp liquid at different ambient temperatures *26WQ70CK double U lamp temperature characteristics (liquid mercury) ambient temperature liquid mercury control temperature lamp voltage lamp current lamp power luminous flux chromaticity coordinate color temperature color rendering index * 26W ã€–270CK double U lamp temperature characteristics (amalgam) ambient temperature liquid mercury control temperature lamp voltage lamp current lamp power luminous flux chromaticity coordinate color temperature color rendering index 4 Conclusion Amalgam plays a decisive role in green light source. Eliminate mercury pollution, protect the lighting environment and protect the environment of the light source consumption area. Because amalgam contains less mercury, mercury vapor is low and solid at room temperature, and it is easy to carry out â€œgreen treatmentâ€ in the lamp area. Amalgamed lamps can be sold worldwide without mercury.
Increasing the luminous efficiency and saving the electric energy is a large amalgam of the amalgam to the CFL. It maintains the color temperature, color coordinates, protection color rendering index, and eliminates the light parameters of the lamp. It helps the rare earth fluorescent powder, and it is also An important contribution of the CFL.
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