Abstract: This paper introduces the concept, basic characteristics, development status and key technologies of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, proposes a bus intelligent monitoring and scheduling model, and analyzes the functions of each module in the system architecture, so as to a certain extent Promote the development of the public transport system and promote the construction and development of the Internet of Things.
Keywords: network networking; RFID technology; M2M technology; intelligent monitoring and dispatching system
0 Introduction The Internet of Things (IOT) represents the future direction of computing and communication technology development. It is considered to be the third wave of development in the information industry after computers and the Internet. Originally, IoT refers to a networked item real-time information sharing system based on the Internet using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and Electronic Product Code (EPC) standards. Later, IoT gradually evolved into an ICT (Information and Communications Technology) technology that combines traditional networks, sensors, AdHoc wireless networks, and pervasive computing, and is forming a new information industry.
The Internet of Things can fully apply information and communication technologies to all walks of life. For example, by embedding sensors in objects such as automobiles, home appliances, power grids, bridges, buildings, etc., it is possible to realize the interconnection and information collection of intelligent objects through the network, and then through cloud computing. The platform realizes efficient processing of massive data to effectively share resources such as equipment, information, and services. In the future, the Internet of Things will eventually realize the integration of physical networks and social networks, thereby greatly improving the level of intelligence in people's production and life.
With the rapid development of the economy and the advancement of information technology, people are increasingly demanding transportation capacity. In view of the current low level of information application in the transportation industry and the status quo of application solutions for further application, this paper presents an intelligent monitoring and dispatching system based on the Internet of Things, which will optimize the bus dispatching system and improve the bus service level. And it will help to alleviate the traffic pressure in the city.
1 The concept and architecture of the Internet of Things
1.1 The concept of the Internet of Things In fact, the Internet of Things is the Internet of Things. There are two meanings here: First, the core and foundation of the Internet of Things is still the Internet, a network that extends and expands on the Internet; second, its client extends and extends between any item and item. Information exchange and communication. Therefore, the Internet of Things is defined as information exchange devices such as radio frequency identification (RFID) devices, infrared sensors, global positioning systems, laser scanners, etc., which connect any item to the Internet for information exchange and communication according to a contractual agreement. A network that enables intelligent identification, location, tracking, monitoring, and management. The relationship between the Internet of Things and other networks is shown in Figure 1.
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IBM's "Smart Planet" concept is to fully utilize the new generation of IT technology in all walks of life, embedding and equipping sensors into power grids, railways, bridges, tunnels, roads, buildings, water systems, and large Various objects such as dams and oil and gas pipelines are commonly connected to form the so-called "Internet of Things." And integrate the "Internet of Things" through supercomputers and cloud computing. Realize the integration of human society and physical systems so that human beings can manage cattle production and life in a more refined and dynamic way, thus achieving a "smart" state.
On August 7, 2009, when Premier Wen Jiabao inspected the Engineering Technology R&D Center of Wuxi High-tech Micro-Nano Sensor Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the person in charge of the center proposed to the Prime Minister to develop a sensor network. Wen Jiabao suggested that at least three things can be done as soon as possible. The first is to combine the sensing system with the TD technology in 3G; the second is to accelerate the development of the sensor network in the national major science and technology projects; the third is to establish China's sensor information center as soon as possible, or the â€œperceive Chinaâ€ center. . The perception of the Chinese concept was thus raised.
M2M is a general term for a series of technologies and combinations of application communication technology to realize data communication and communication between machines and machines, machines and people. It is also a general term for all technologies that enhance the communication and network capabilities of machine equipment. As a means of wireless communication between machines and machines, M2M provides a new solution for information management in manufacturing. M2M business is the fastest growing part of the current IoT business, and it is a common application form of the Internet of Things at this stage.
1.2 Internet of Things Architecture The Internet of Things is a three-tier network system consisting of a sensing layer, a communication layer, and an application layer. Its specific structure is shown in Figure 2.
The sensing layer mainly uses smart cards, sensors, industrial automation, and electronic tools such as audio and video to identify objects and collect corresponding data information to make objects intelligent and make objects "live".
The communication layer is generally composed of an IoT platform layer and a network layer. The network layer mainly transmits information. The network layer includes an access network and a core network. The access network can provide network access functions, mobility management, etc. for the Internet of Things terminals, and the access network includes various wired access and wireless access. The core network is a unified, high-performance, scalable network based on IP that supports heterogeneous access and terminal mobility. The core network will be largely based on existing telecommunications networks and the Internet. The network layer is the basic bearer network for IoT information. The existing communication networks are designed for their respective customer goals, thus forming a situation in which multiple heterogeneous networks coexist. There are many devices in the Internet of Things that need to be accessed. Therefore, the Internet of Things must be heterogeneous. Since objects can be mobile, the network layer of the Internet of Things must support mobility for seamless and transparent access.
The application layer mainly stores the collected information in a unified data center, performs data processing, and develops various application software to provide intelligent services for different needs.
2 IoT key technologies
2.1 RFID technology Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is commonly known as electronic tags. Radio frequency identification technology is a technology that uses radio frequency signals to achieve contactless information transmission through spatial coupling (alternating magnetic field or electromagnetic field) and to achieve identification purposes through the transmitted information. Because it is a non-contact automatic identification technology, the identification work can work in a variety of harsh environments without manual intervention. RFID technology can recognize high-speed moving objects and recognize multiple labels at the same time, which is quick and easy to operate.
2.2 Sensing Network Technology Sensing network technology is a combination of sensors, large-scale wireless sensor network technology and its intelligent processing technology.
The sensor is a detecting device that can sense the measured information and can transform the detected information into an electrical signal or other required form of information output according to a certain law to meet the information transmission, processing, storage, Requirements for display, recording and control. In the sensor network, the sensor has two functions: one is data acquisition and processing; the other is data fusion and routing, synthesizing the data collected by the node and the data sent by other nodes, and then forwarding the route to Gateway node. The gateway node can communicate with the outside world in a variety of ways throughout the sensor network.
2.3 M2M technology M2M allows machine, device, and application processing to be shared with back-end information systems through man-to-man, man-to-machine, and machine-to-machine communication. Information and share information with the operator. It enables devices to establish wireless connections between systems, between remote devices, or between machines and individuals in real time for data transfer.
The application of M2M technology covers almost all walks of life. By â€œletting the machine speakâ€, the machine equipment is no longer an information island, which effectively monitors and manages equipment and assets, and can be promoted by optimizing cost allocation and improving service. The society is developing in a more efficient, safe, energy-saving and environmentally friendly way.
3 Internet of Things model in bus intelligent monitoring and dispatching system
3.1 System Structure The system adopts a data center and multiple scheduling client architecture modes, and uses two-level scheduling (central scheduling mode) or three-level scheduling (line scheduling mode) mode for intelligent scheduling. The whole system consists of bus car GPS terminal, electronic station card, bus IC card reader, bus front, rear, waist card system, data transmission network, bus intelligent monitoring and dispatching platform. Figure 3 shows the structure of the bus intelligent monitoring and dispatching system.
(1) Bus vehicle GPS terminal The vehicle GPS terminal is installed on the monitored vehicle and has the functions of data acquisition, information interaction, information display, connection and control of other devices.
(2) Electronic station card The bus intelligent monitoring and dispatching system can update the bus-to-station distance information on the electronic station card in time according to the real-time running status reported by the vehicle GPS terminal.
(3) Bus IC card reader The bus IC card reader and the car GPS terminal can be connected through standard interfaces (RS232/485, Can2.0, USB2.0), and the punch card information can be uploaded via the wireless network.
(4) Front, rear, and waist system bus front and rear, waist card system and vehicle GPS terminal are mainly connected through standard interfaces (RS232/485, Can2.0, USB2.0) for remote automatic update. Or the function of switching bus route information.
(5) Data transmission network The mobile intelligent monitoring and dispatching system and the vehicle terminal use the mobile company 2G, 2.5G or 3G mobile communication network to realize data interaction, which can ensure the stability and reliability of data transmission.
(6) The bus intelligent monitoring and dispatching platform platform can analyze and process the data reported by the vehicle terminal, and connect with the GIS geographic information system to realize vehicle monitoring, data information statistical management, vehicle operation scheduling, automatic shift management, and electronic stop sign. Information update and other functions. The bus intelligent monitoring and dispatching platform can be accessed anytime and anywhere via the Internet.
3.2 System functions (1) Bus scheduling The system automatically generates operational plans and scheduling plans by statistical analysis of bus free/busy hours and combined with bus personnel management information.
(2) Monitoring and dispatching of public transportation vehicles The regional intelligent dispatching can realize regional dispatching. The dispatching center can implement scheduling of multiple bus lines at the same time, and can realize the operation of cross-line operation of operating vehicles and resource allocation between lines (personnel deployment, vehicle deployment). It is also possible to monitor the operation of the vehicle through electronic roads and automatic reporting stations.
(3) IC card wireless transmission IC card credit card machine can connect with the vehicle GPS terminal through standard data transmission protocol, transmit the data of IC card credit card machine in real time, update the blacklist of IC card credit card machine in real time, synchronize the time of IC card credit card machine Wait.
(4) The bus line automatically switches the front, rear, and waist card systems of the bus. It can also be connected to the car GPS terminal through the standard data transmission protocol. Thus, when the bus line needs to be replaced, the monitoring and dispatching center can realize the bus by remote operation. Automatic change of front, rear, waist card, intelligent voice report station, and electronic work order assessment.
4 Conclusion With the development of the Internet of Things, its intelligence and networking will become more and more high, and it will be widely used in more areas of social life, making our lives more comfortable and environmentally friendly, and people and nature more harmonious. The bus intelligent monitoring system proposed in this paper can make the public transport system develop into a new historical stage, and the application of the Internet of Things will become an important symbol of this stage. In addition, the system can be extended to other transportation fields through later research.
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