When the LED lighting economy is hot, perhaps for breakthrough or summary, the lighting is divided into three eras:
First, the filament bulb era (incandescent lamp)
Second, the gas bulb era (fluorescent light)
Third, the era of semiconductor lighting (LED)
Among them, the longest incandescent lamp and the mainstream LED are the most important points of investigation. No matter how the times develop, the lighting industry's production processes are strikingly similar, just like China is in the downstream of the industry. The core technologies are basically owned by countries such as Europe, America and Japan.
1. The principle of LED illumination is that when electrons pass through a layer of semiconductor material, the semiconductor material is excited to convert electrical energy into light energy. However, the light-emitting ability of a single-layer semiconductor is very weak, so a plurality of layers of single-layer materials are superimposed and pressed into a composite material like a thousand-layer cake, which is an "epitaxial sheet."
Therefore, the luminous efficiency of an LED depends on how many layers can be pressed in the same thickness. The thinner the single layer material, the more layers that can be stacked, and the higher the luminous efficiency. Now generally only 2-20 microns thick per layer, which also determines the production of epitaxial wafers is the most difficult part of the entire LED production process.
2, cutting - LED core: equivalent to extracting the filament from the tungsten material, the difference is that the epitaxial wafer after cutting is square.
Due to the special structure of the epitaxial wafer, it is very difficult to cut the luminescent core intact. Not only a vacuum environment, but also a professional cutting machine. There are currently only two manufacturers in the world that produce this type of cutting machine.
3, the core into the LED chip : the chip to the LED, just as the lamp holder is the light bulb, is the power supply part. "Chip" is a very important equipment to achieve the desired effect of LEDs, because LEDs have very high current requirements.
4. Encapsulating the LED chip into an illuminant: encapsulating the LED chip into an illuminant, just as adding a lampshade to the filament lamp holder to form a bulb. The shape of the lampshade can vary depending on the needs, but the packaging technology determines the life of the illuminator.
5, lighting applications: just like the use of incandescent bulbs, according to different functions and needs, assembled into different LED products .
For LED lighting, the first three steps of the epitaxial wafer, cutting and chip are upstream, the fourth step of the package is the middle, and the fifth step is the downstream. These problems require us to use more energy to break through.
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