The EPC system is a global automated data acquisition and processing system that combines radio frequency technology (RFID), Internet technology and product electronic code (EPC) to instantly identify and track the flow and status of items in the global supply chain and improve supply. Chain efficiency and transparency in the supply chain. Among them, the product electronic code (EPC) is a coding standard compatible with commodity barcodes, which is the extension and extension of the global unified coding and identification system, and is also the core and key of the EPC system.
Birth and development
In 1999, MIT combined RFID with the Internet to present the concept of EPC for the first time. Afterwards, the International Article Numbering Association (GS1) implanted the global unified identification coding system into the EPC concept, and in 2003 officially took over the promotion and application of EPC in the world, specially established EPCglobal, and authorized the national coding organization members to be responsible for the country. EPC work.
After the advent of EPC, the standard system and working principle of EPC proposed by it was regarded as the prototype of the Internet of Things. At present, all the architectures and applications of the Internet of Things are mostly designed based on the EPC system. The EPC standard system contains more than a dozen specific standards, which can be summarized into three parts: coding, data acquisition and data exchange.
At the coding level, EPC is compatible with all GS1 codes, including trade projects, logistics units, locations, assets, etc. All of the world's physical and virtual items exist. These codes have been used in many fields and have been used for many years, so they can be well These areas seamlessly transition to applying EPC coding. In addition, the EPC code is a single product code, which can encode the smallest object unit, plus the feature of huge coding capacity (296), which can meet the needs of fine management of any single item, such as using EPC to realize each product. Manage and drill down queries. The EPC code also has no meaning. Except for the EPC licensor (manager code, the manager who identifies the item in the world), the remaining code bits have no specific meaning, which is beneficial to many applications in the global open environment.
At the data collection level, the EPC UHF C1Gen2 standard has become the ISO 18000-6C standard because the development of EPC/RFID standards is the result of joint efforts of all parties in the world. At present, UHF RFID tags that are compatible with EPC standards have become the mainstream in the market. They have the advantages of mature technology and low cost, and have the most potential in application and have good application prospects.
In the data exchange, the EPC system proposes EPCIS (Information Service) as the interface standard for information exchange, with ONS analysis and data discovery as the network support mechanism to maximize the respect for the operational independence and data autonomy of the enterprise, and jointly create a global coverage. EPC-based information sharing network.
Problems in development
Since its inception in 1999, the EPC has attracted worldwide attention. EPC revolutionized the use of RFID to create an efficient and transparent global supply chain, and promote the development of related industries and the progress of applications. The news of various propaganda and application has been endless. A group of enterprises and service providers have invested in EPC research. The biggest driving force is the use of Wal-Mart in logistics and warehousing, which has led to the active cooperation of many suppliers and service providers, including many Chinese companies applying for the first time. Join the EPC system members and prepare to implement the deployment of EPC. However, the central management and information network architecture of EPC at that time caused concerns about information control and security in countries and regions such as Europe and China. In addition, the cost of implementing RFID and building information networks was huge at the time, and the business needs and benefits were not obvious. The construction of an open and information-based supply chain environment will take time. With concerns about fees, patents, privacy, etc., the application boom of EPC quickly became quiet and rational.
Soon, the GS1 with the purpose of â€œuser-drivenâ€ adjusted the EPC and tried to solve the above problems, making it more adaptable to the application of various industries in various countries. This adjustment is reflected in the following aspects:
GS1 organization and management adjustment, further integration with GS1 brand
In 2009, GS1 canceled the existence of EPCglobal as an entity, and incorporated the original EPCglobal management function into the entire management system of GS1, incorporating the original EPCglobal standard work into the new GSMP (Global Standard Management Process) framework, and strengthening the coding organizations of various countries in the region. The dominant position in EPC management. In the promotion, the brand of GS1 is highlighted, emphasizing that EPC is one of several products of GS1, which is the industry solution service of GS1.
EPC management rights are delegated to countries
GS1 fully decentralizes the national coding institutions to carry out EPC management and application promotion in the region, and countries can independently decide the development strategy of EPC based on the actual situation in the region. In order to better promote the application of EPC and reduce the implementation cost of enterprises, in 2012, the company has exempted enterprises from using EPC registration fees and simplified the registration process. At the same time, national coding agencies can lead the region's root resolution services, thus reducing the risk of losing control of information at the national level.
EPC is closely integrated with the GS1 solution
As a basic technology support, EPC no longer emphasizes a single solution, but is fully integrated with GS1 industry solutions, especially in the data collection and information sharing process to strengthen the role and value of GS1 solutions. For example, after the ESP is combined with the EPC, it can realize the characteristics of item-level, RFID-based, and event-based information, making the traceability scheme more precise, more powerful, and more effective.
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